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· What is Localization?
· What is Globalization?
What is Internationalization?
What is double-byte enabling?
What is translation memory?
What is machine translation?
What is alignment?
What is leveraging?
What is fuzzy matching?
What is pseudo-translation?
What is front-end GUI?
What is a glossary in localization?
What do the terms "Update" or "Leverage" mean in the context of localization?
What is the difference between Internationalization and Localization?
What are the elements of a Help contents files?
· What are the important pieces of information stored in a HPJ file?
What are the terms; Hotspot, Hypertext and Help compiler?
What is the difference between Traditional and Simplified Chinese?
What is the difference between European and Latin American Spanish?

Localization - is the process during which a computer program is translated to a different language for a specific market. The user interface is translated into the target language, dialog boxes are resized due to the use of different character sets, and if necessary, double-byte enabling is done.Top

Globalization - the process of developing a program core whose feature design and code design don't make assumptions based on a single language or locale and whose source code base simplifies the creation of different language editions of programs.Top

Internationalization - "International", "international-aware", "internationalized", "globalized" and "world-wide" are all buzzwords used to describe programs that are designed to function for more than one language. It is far more efficient to create an internationalized core that can serve as a foundation for all language editions of a product when product development begins. This involves designing a user interface, as set of features and a code base that are generic enough to work for most of the product's intended language editions.Top

Double-byte Enabling - most European languages have an alphabet that uses a fairly small number of distinct characters. When the number of these characters is small enough, it is possible to represent any letter in the alphabet with a single byte of information. Asian languages, however, often use an ideographic method of writing in which there may be thousands of different characters. Since it is not possible to represent one of any of these thousands of different characters with a single byte, it is necessary to use two bytes to distinguish the character.Top

Translation memory - (TM) tools rely on high-speed pattern recognition and rapid replacement. The goal of translation memory tools is to recycle existing translations in material where duplications exists. A translation memory is typically a file, which contains a pairing (bi-text) of source and target translatable segments. Translation memory tools use a translation memory file to recycle material.Top

Machine translation - (MT) technology relies on the computer to perform a in-depth grammatical, syntax and some semantic analysis of the source language and then attempts to translate the source language into the target language using extensive glossaries and a complex set of linguistic rules.Top

Alignment - is the paring of source language segments with target language equivalents from the source and target files. Alignment is usually a step that must be done when material has not been translated using a translation tool in the past.Top

Leveraging - is the recycling of duplicate material from one upgrade to another or from one similar product to another. Leveraging results in significant cost savings by using material from previously translated projects.Top

Fuzzy matching - statistically analyzes a segment to determine its equivalence to another segment. Similar to leveraging, fuzzy matching finds duplicate material that is similar. The tolerance can be changed at any time, allowing the translator to adjust the fuzzy matching to best meet the needs of their translation.Top

Pseudo-translation - is a process whereby a string is taken and put through a translation-like process that alters and produces a new string. The objective is to mimic the translation process. It may change the length of a string, add accented characters and or add diacritical marks. The purpose is to highlight the potential problems that may occur when the translation is actually produced.Top

Front-end GUI (Graphical User Interface) - site is created as a set of ASP pages, which define the overall look and feel. These files contain reference to content in a SQL database. When the page is accessed, it combines the look and feel defined in the ASP page with the content in the database, producing the HTML page, which is then rendered to the user. A number of session variables are defined and passed across all pages in the site. These components are combined together at run-time to produce the page. This allows a single component to be re-used across the entire site. Changes to one component are then immediately propagated throughout the site, thus updating or fixing a bug site-wide. Most of the sites use many of the same ASP pages to render content.Top

Glossary in localization - a glossary is a list of English terms and a corresponding list in a foreign language. Most popular markets outside USA for software - choosing a target language markets, hit the most popular first. French, Italian, German and Spanish are the first group. The second group would be Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Dutch and Brazilian Portuguese. For Asian markets the hot languages are Japanese, Korean and both Simplified and Traditional Chinese.Top

Update or Leverage in the context of localization - an update occurs when a new version of source software becomes available during the localization project. Often, the requirement to shop language versions simultaneously means that localization must commence prior to the completion of the development cycle. Incremental builds of the domestic product must be reflected in the localized produce. These incremental builds are known as updates. Leveraging is a technique employed to reduce the work needed to include updates in localized versions of a product. Old versions of files are used to reduce the work in translating a newer version of the source product. The appropriate translations from the source file are used in the newer version. The result is that the only items to be translated are those that have changed from the older source version to the newer target version.Top

Difference between Internationalization and Localization - Internationalization is a developer's issue, it means developing a program core whose design features, code design and source code is general and makes no assumptions based on a single language. Localization is the process of making a software product and its associated documentation acceptable for use in another culture.Top

Elements of a Help contents file - the file should contain a) the name of the compiled Help file, b) the title which should appear on the contents window and c) the names of any topics and pages in the Help file. To create a CNT file, put the following into a text file. The extension of the file should be .CNT.Top

Important pieces of information stored in a HPJ file - the information contained in the project file is important for localizing the Help system. The file contains:

· Locale information, that is, information on the keyboard setting and character sort order.

  • The title of any window opened by the compiled Help file
  • The name of the compiled Help file (HLP)
  • The location of any graphics files
  • The name and location of the RTF file, containing the text for Help
  • The name of any window opened by Help
  • The window types to be used by the Help system (Default, Always on top…)Top


Hotspot, Hypertext and Help Compiler - (a) Hotspot - this is an area of text and graphics which when clicked on, using the mouse, reveals more information. The hotspot may be a jump to another screen, or it may cause a window to pop up or it may initiate a macro. (b) Hypertext - this is the non-linear presentation of information, where the user clicks on hotspot text or shed hypergraphics and navigates (browses) a designed system of links to more information. (c) Help Compiler - this is a program that takes Help project source file and processes them, compressing them into a single file.Top

Difference between Traditional and Simplified Chinese - people in Taiwan and the People's Republic of China both speak Chinese and many speak Mandarin dialect. Mandarin is the official language of both. However, there can be vast differences in the written languages. Mandarin spoken by people on mainland China was "simplified" by the in the middle of this century in an effort to increase literacy. They reduced the number of strokes in most characters. Not only do the written characters differ, but different terminology is used in Taiwan as well. In the PRC "software" is rendered (in Pinyin) "ruanjian", while in Taiwan it's called "ruanti".Top

Differences between European and Latin American Spanish - even calling the latter "Latin American" Spanish is a misnomer, since various countries in Latin America speak and write slightly different versions of Spanish. They all differ from "Continental" Spanish substantially. In the "high tech" arena, as well as disciplines like finance and legal, differences in terminology exist because some terms spread from country to country, while others are "home grown".Top

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